The idea of reading the future or someone's character from the lines on their palms is called Chiromancy or Palmistry but most often referred to as Palm reading. Undoubtedly ancient, the first book on the subject was in the 15th century. Though used to detect witches it was nonetheless condemned by the Catholic Church.
Proponents claim that because your hand changes as you grow and no two hands are identical then it follows that the hand is a 'map' of your life and therefore an indication of your future. Of course it is complete bollocks. The lines and folds in your hand may well be unique but unless there is specific scarring from a specific incident or occupation are highly unlikely to reveal much about you, nor if you will live a long life and have three healthy children - 2 boys and a girl.
Palmistry was much more popular in times gone by and is often equated in the minds of the public with seaside 'Gypsy' fortune tellers. The Good Thinking Society and The merseyside Skeptics did a great series of videos where they visited a palm reader undercover with rather interesting results.